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Trần Gia Thái Cực Quyền - Chen style TaiChi Chuan

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Trần Gia Thái Cực Quyền - Chen style TaiChi Chuan

Post by Admin on Tue Jul 21, 2009 10:12 pm

Chen style TaiChi Chuan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Chen family style (陳家、陳氏 or 陳式 太極拳) is the oldest and parent form of the five main tai chi chuan styles. It is third in terms of world-wide popularity compared to the other main taijiquan styles. Chen style is characterized by its lower stances, more explicit Silk reeling (chan si jin) and bursts of power (fa jin).[1]
Today tai chi chuan is typically practised for a number of widely varying reasons: health, external/internal martial art skills, aesthetics, meditation, athletic/competition sport (sometimes called "wushu tai chi"). Therefore a teacher's system, practise and choice of tai chi chuan routines usually emphasises one of these characteristics. The five traditional family styles tend to retain the original martial applicability of tai chi teaching methods. Some argue that Chen style schools succeed in this to a greater degree.[1]
Chen style practitioners in Single Whip


Contents


  • 1 History

    1.1 Origin Theories
    1.1.1 The Chen Family Origin Story
    1.1.2 Other Origin Stories
    1.2 Chen Village (Chenjiagou)
    1.3 Recent History
  • 2 Chen forms
    2.1 Chen Wangting's Corpus of Seven Routines
    2.2 Big frame/small frame split
    2.3 Big frame tradition
    2.4 Small Frame tradition (xiao jia) 小架[4]
  • 3 Closely related Chen forms
    3.1 Zhaobao Taijiquan
    3.2 Chen Shi Xinyi Hun Yuan Taijiquan
  • 4 Modern Chen forms
  • 5 Weapon forms
  • 6 Additional training
  • 7 Martial application
  • 8 Chen style in popular culture
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links
History

Origin Theories

The origin and nature of tai chi is not historically verifiable at all until around the 1600s when the Chen clan of Chenjiagou (Chen Village, 陳家溝), Henan province, China appear identified as possessing a unique martial arts system. How the Chen family came to practise their unique style is not clear due to lack of documentation from the formative period and irreconcilable views on the matter abound. What is known is that the other four modern orthodox family styles of tai chi chuan are traced to the teachings in the Chen family village in the early 19th century.[2][3]
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The Chen Family Origin Story

According to interviews with Chen clan family members (Chen Xiaowang, Chen Zhenglei, Zhu Tiancai) there was a family art which Chen Bu (the founder of Chen Jiagou) brought with him. The family had brought this martial art from Shanxi when the clan was forced to leave. While there are few written sources, this history should not be dismissed too quickly because Shanxi is also the traditional origin of Bagua Zhang and Xingyi Chuan, which share some of the bio-mechanical foundations with Tai Chi Chuan.
Sourced histories center around Chen Wangting (1600-1680), who codified pre-existing Chen training practice into a corpus of seven routines.This include five routines of tai chi chuan (太極拳五路), 108 form Long Fist (一百零八勢長拳)and Cannon Fist(炮捶一路). Wangting is said[who?] to have incorporated theories from a classic text by General Qi Jiguang 戚繼光, Jixiaoxinshu 繼效新書 (new book of techniques from different schools.) and Huang Di Nei Jing《黃帝內經》 (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Chinese Medicine), which described martial arts from 16 different styles.
According to Chen Zhenglei, citing works from oral tradition, it was in Chen Wangting's time that Jiang Fa (Jian Bashi) was captured by Chen Wangting. Jian Fa was a skilled martial artist in his own right. The two became very close friends and their exchange of ideas was fruitful. A portrait of Chen Wangting, with Jiang Fa behind him is often reproduced.

Other Origin Stories

Some legends assert that a disciple of Zhang Sanfeng named Wang Zongyue (王宗岳) taught Chen family the martial art later to be known as taijiquan.[2]
Other legends speak of Jiang Fa (蔣發 Jiǎng Fā). Reputedly a monk from Wudang mountain who came to Chen village, he is said to have radically transformed the Chen family art for the better when he taught Chen Changxing (1771-1853) internal fighting practices. However there are significant difficulties with this explanation: it is no longer clear if their relationship was that of teacher/student or even who taught whom.[2] It should also be noted that Chen Chang-Xing produced a comprehensive encyclopedia of the art form as he knew it. If there were a Jiang Fa around then, some written record should have survived, but there isn't and it contradicts the current oral history of Jiang Fa being a contemporary of Chen Wangting.

Chen Village (Chenjiagou)

Historically documented from the 1600s, the Chen family were originally from Shanxi, Hong Dong (山西洪洞). First generation, Chen Pu (陳仆), shifted from Shanxi to Wen County, Henan Province (河南溫县). Originally known as Chang Yang Cun (常陽村) or Sunshine village, the village grew to include a large number of Chen descendants. Because of the three deep ravines (Gou) beside the village it became to be known as Chen Jia Gou (陳家溝) or Chen Family Village. Chen village has since been a center of tai chi learning. Ninth generation Chen Wangting (陳王廷) is credited as performing the first formal codification of Chen family martial art practice.
Perhaps the best known Chen family teacher was 14th generation Chen Changxing (陳長興 Chén Chángxīng, Ch'en Chang-hsing, 1771-1853). He further synthesized Chen Wangting's open fist training corpus into two routines that came to be known as "old frame" (老架) (lao jia). Chen Changxing, contrary to Chen family tradition, also took the first recorded non-family member as a disciple, Yang Luchan (1820), who went on to develop his own family tradition (Yang style tai chi chuan). Tai chi proved very popular and the other three traditional styles of tai chi chuan further sprang from Yang family tradition, some of these styles also borrowing from the Chen family "Small Frame" tradition (see immediately below). Chen family teaching remained hidden and was not taught publicly until 1928.
Chen Youben (陳有本), of the 14th Chen generation, is credited with starting a mainstream Chen training tradition that differed from that created by Chen Changxing. It was originally known as xinjia (新架) (New Form) as opposed to Chen Changxing's lao jia. It gradually became to be known as xiao jia (小架) or small form.
Small Form eventually lead to the formation of two styles with Chen family influences -- Zhaobao jia and hulei jia (thunder) which are not considered a part of the Chen family lineage.

Recent History

In recent decades Chen style Taijiquan has come to be recognized as a major style of martial art within China. In Western countries Chen style is rapidly growing in popularity for either martial art (interest in its neijia skills) or healthy life-style (more lively than Yang style) reasons.
This more recent popularity can be seen to be grounded on "promotional" efforts made by leading Chen style masters at two major periods during the 1900s:
In the late 1920s Chen Fake (陳發科, 陈发科, Chén Fākē, Ch'en Fa-k'e 1887-1957) and his nephew broke with Chen family tradition and began openly teaching Chen style - providing public classes in Beijing for many years. Chen Fake's influence was so great that a powerful Beijing Chen style tradition survived his death; it was centred around his "New Frame" variant of Chen Village "Old Frame." His legacy spread throughout China by the efforts of his senior students (e.g. Hong Junsheng, Feng Zhiqiang, Li Jingwu, Chen Zhaokui, Gu Liuxin, Lei Muni, Tian Xiuchen, Xu Rusheng, and Li Jianhua).
At this time mention must also be made of the first in-depth book ever written on Chen style. It was written by a 16th generation family member Chen Xin 陳鑫 (Ch’en Hsin, 1849-1929) called Taijiquan Illustrated 太極拳圖說 (see classic book) and proved very popular but was not actually published until 1932, well after Chen Xin's death.
A second significant "promotional wave" in Western countries began in the 1980s. It can be traced to changes in Chinese foreign policy and the migration of Chinese Chen stylists around the world. On a more organised level mention must be made of Chen Village's international "roaming ambassadors" known as the "Four Buddha Warrior Attendants." These specially trained sons of Chen Village are Chen Xiao Wang (Chen Fake's direct grandson), Chen Zhenglei, Wang Xian and Zhu Tiancai. They are extremely well known internationally on account of their many years of relentless global workshops and talks.
Other well known 19th generation Chen teachers active in China or overseas include: Chen Yu 陳瑜(grandson of Chen Fake), Li Enjiu 李恩久, Zhang Xuexin 張學信, Zhang Zhijun 張志俊. Growing in more recent popularity are Chen (Joseph) Zhonghua 陳中華 in Canada, Wu (Peter) Shi-zeng (a senior student of Hong Junsheng) in Australia, Chen Xiaoxing 陳小星 (Chen Village), Chen Xiang 陳項 (Chen Village).
Chen Peishan and Chen Peiju (20th generation) have been influential in promoting the less well known Chen Village Small Frame tradition (see below). They continue to travel and teach Small Frame Chen taijiquan around the world.
Chen style schools with links back to Chen Village and Beijing have blossomed rapidly in Western countries in the last twenty years - offering a significantly different alternative to Yang family style (effectively the only tai chi known in the West before that time). Such countries with strong links back to Chen Village include USA, Canada, Britain, New Zealand, Germany, Italy, Czech Republic, Japan, Singapore and Malaysia.

Chen forms:

Chen Wangting's Corpus of Seven Routines
Chen Wangting (9th generation) is generally credited with codifying less structured practices of his family's art into a corpus of seven training forms/routines. In addition to these "open fist" sets there was also practise of weapon forms and a two person combat "form" called tui shou (Push Hands).

Big frame/small frame split
Around the time of the 14/15th generation Chen Village practice appears to have differentiated into two related but distinct practice traditions which are today known as big frame (sometimes called large frame) and small frame. The various practise routines embodied in big/small frame traditions modified and assimilated Chen Wangting's seven set corpus and the original practise routines are now said to have been lost. (Though recent claims are being made that Chen Wangting's 108 form has been rediscovered from two possible sources: senior Beijing disciples of Chen Zhaokui; Chen relatives back in Shanxi Province)
There are conflicting claims about which of these two traditions came first. Western theories and most of the famous masters from Chen Village (see Chen Zhenglei's English language book) tend to favor the view that big frame tradition came first (noting that "small frame" tradition was originally called "new frame"). There is a minority view from outside of Chen Village that tend to favor the reverse view.
There are also conflicting stories about the reason for the differentiation into these two traditions. Zhu Tian Cai comments that small frame tradition routines tended to be practiced by "retired" Chen villagers (and mimicked by younger children). It seems this was because the more demanding leaping, stomping, low frame, and intensive Fa jin of the advanced big frame tradition routines have been eliminated and the retained movements emphasize the training of the soft internal skills. Keep in mind that this is only a tendency and a master of the principles may use them to add fa jing, leaping, stomping, and low frame back to the small tradition at will. Just as a master of the large frame can perform the set small, large, smoothly, with fa jing in every movement, low, middle, or high. The traditions are only significantly different because the elder practitioners tend to focus on longevity and may develop injuries if they practice in the same manner as the younger practitioners.
Other authors, however, say that "big" does not simply mean large exaggerated outer movements and nor does "small" simply mean confined/close outer movements. They argue that in small frame both large and small motions are used - with the smaller motions considered to be more advanced. It is also useful to frame the discussion in terms of human physiology. The large and small frame traditions have similar training methods and are training the same tai chi principles (clear movement of qi, shifting the weight, relaxation, etc.) it is only the external presentation that confuses beginners.
In the book "Chen Style: The Source of Taijiquan" the explanation is given that both the large and small frames were developed at the same time, by two related masters, as distillations and simplifications of the existing routines.
Keep in mind throughout this discussion that no literature of Chen style before 1932 appears to mention anything about New, old, big or small styles. As with so much of Tai Chi history complete comprehension and certainty is hard to find.

Big frame tradition
Chen family traditions were kept secret from the public until around 1928 when the big frame routines were taught openly for the first time. This was started in Beijing by Chen Fake's nephew and then by the legendary Chen Fake himself.
Big frame encompasses the classic "old frame" (lao jia) routines, one & two, which are very well known today. It also includes the more recent "new frame" (xin jia) routines, one & two, which evolved from the classic Old Way/Frame routines thanks to the work of Chen Fake in Beijing in his later years (1950s).
Xin yi hun yuan tai chi is an offshoot of the new frame (xin jia) tradition and blends in material from Feng Zhiqiang's Xing Yi background.

Lao jia – old frame 老架
The Chen lao jia consists of two forms yi lu (1st routine) and er lu (2nd routine) It was taught privately in Chen Village from the time of Chen ChangXing - the 14th generation creator of these routines. These were the very first Chen tai chi routines to be publicly revealed. This happened in Beijing from 1928 onwards - being taught by Chen Fake and his nephew.
Yi lu (the first empty hand form) at the beginner level is mostly done slowly with large motions interrupted by occasional expressions of fast power (Fajing) that comprise less than 20% of the movements, with the overall purpose of teaching the body to move correctly. At the intermediate level it is practiced in very low stances (low frame) with an exploration of clear directional separation in power changes and in speed tempo. The movements become smaller and the changes in directional force become more subtle. At the advanced level the leg strength built at the previous level allows full relaxation and the potential for Fajing in every movement.
The second empty hand form, "er lu" or "cannon fist" is done faster and is used to add more advanced martial techniques such as advanced sweeping and more advanced fajing methods. Both forms also teach various martial techniques.
Xin jia – new frame 新架
An older Chen Fake plays the "xin jia" form he introduced to the world

This style was first seen practiced by Chen Fake in his later years (1950s) and many regard him as the author of the style. Credit for actual public teaching/spread of these two new routines probably goes to his senior students (especially his son, Chen Zhaokui).
When Chen Zhaokui returned to Chen Village (to assist and then succeed Chen ZhaoPei) to train today's generation of Masters (e.g. the "Four Buddhas") he taught Chen Fake's, unknown adaptation of old frame. Zhu Tian Cai recalls, as a young man at the time, they all started calling it "xin jia" (new frame) because it was adapted from classic old frame.
The main difference from old frame (lao jia) is that the movements are smaller and more obvious torso twisting silk reeling and twining of the arms/wrists is employed. This form tends to emphasise manipulation, seizing and grappling (qinna) rather than striking techniques.
Zhu Tian Cai has commented that the xinjia (new frame) emphasises the silk reeling movements to help beginners more easily learn the internal principles in form and to make application more obvious in relation to the Old big frame forms.
In Chen Village xin jia is traditionally learned only after lao jia. Like lao jia, xin jia consists of two routines, yi lu and er lu (cannon fist). The new frame cannon fist is generally performed faster than the other empty hand forms, at the standardized speed its 72 movements finish in under 4 minutes.

Small Frame tradition (xiao jia) 小架[4]
This style was until recently not publicly known outside of Chen Village. DVD material has been made available in more recent times though authentic, public teaching is still hard to find. The reasons for this may be more to do with the nature of small frame tradition itself rather than any particular motivation of secrecy (see below).
Although it recently had the term "small frame" attached to it "xiao jia" was previously known as "xin jia" (new frame). Apparently the name change occurred to differentiate it from the new routines that Chen Fake created (from big frame tradition's "old frame" routines) in the 1950s which then became called "Xin Jia" (by the young men of Chen Village).
Even today some people confuse Chen Fake's altered routines (from big frame tradition's "old frame" routines) with small frame tradition and believe he revealed the secret teaching of small frame tradition as well.
Zhu Tian Cai comments that small frame tradition routines also used to be practiced by "retired" Chen villagers. It seems this was because the more demanding leaping, stomping, low frame, and intensive fa jing of the advanced big frame tradition routines have been eliminated and the retained movements emphasize use of the more subtle internal skills, which is a more appropriate regimen for the bodies of elder practitioners. He also observed that young children used to imitate Small Frame routines by watching older villagers practicing and this was encouraged for health reasons.
Xiao Jia is known mainly for its emphasis on internal movements, this being the main reason that people refer to it as "small frame"; all "silk-reeling" action is within the body, the limbs are the last place the motion occurs.

Closely related Chen forms:

Zhaobao Taijiquan
Zhaobao Taijiquan is gaining increasing recognition as minor Chen style tradition in its own right within the Western tai chi community. While Zhaobao and Chen style are obviously related (demonstrations are often mistaken for Chen style) it is independent of present Chen family practice and lineage. It was said to have been created by a Small Frame practitioner Chen Qingping.

Chen Shi Xinyi Hun Yuan Taijiquan
Xinyi Hun Yuan tai chi chuan (Chinese: 陳式心意混元太極 陈式心意混元太极) is much like traditional Chen style Xin Jia with an influence from Shanxi Hsing Yi. It was created by one of Chen Fake's senior students Feng Zhiqiang 馮志強. Specifically, the style synthesizes a large amount of Xin Yi (both Qigong and, to a lesser degree, martial movements). Outwardly it appears similar to traditional Old Frame Chen forms.
"Hun Yuan" refers to the strong emphasis on circular, "orbital" or spiraling internal principles which are at the heart of this evolved Chen tradition. While such principles already exist in mainstream Chen style the Hun Yuan tradition develops the theme further. Its teaching system pays attention to spiraling techniques in both body and limbs and how they may be harmoniously coordinated together.

Modern Chen forms
Similar to other family styles of tai chi, Chen style has had its frame adapted by competitors to fit within the framework of Wushu competition. A prominent example is the 56 Chen Competition form (developed by the Chinese National Wushu Association from lao jia routines) and to a lesser extent the 48/42 Combined Competition form (1976/1989 by the Chinese Sports Committee developed from Chen and three other traditional styles).
In the last ten years or so even respected grandmasters of traditional styles have begun to accommodate this contemporary trend towards shortened forms that take less time to learn and perform. Beginners in large cities don't always have the time, space or the concentration needed to immediately start learning old frame (75 movements). This proves all the more true at workshops given by visiting grandmasters. Consequently shortened versions of the traditional forms have been developed even by the "Four Buddhas." Beginners can choose from postures of 38 (synthesized from both lao and xin jia by Chen Xiao Wang), 19 (1995 Chen Xiao Wang), 18 (Chen Zheng Lei) and 13 (1997 Zhu Tian Cai). There is even a 4 step routine (repeated 4 times in a circular progression - returning to start) useful for confined spaces (Zhu Tian Cai).
A comprehensive list of forms, old and new, can be found here.

Weapon forms:

Chen Tai Chi has several unique weapon forms.

  • the 49 posture Straight Sword (Jian) form
  • the 13 posture Broadsword ( (Dao]sword]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dao_(sword)]Dao]sword) Dao form )
  • Spear Qiang solo and partner forms
  • 3, 8, and 13 posture Gun (staff) forms
  • 30 posture Halberd (Da Dao/Kwan Dao) form
  • several double weapons forms utilizing the above-mentioned items

Additional training
Before teaching the forms, the instructor may have the students do stance training such as zhan zhuang and various qigong routines such as silk reeling exercises. These stance training and qigong exercises are done to condition and strengthen the body to have the correct frame and alignment so as to be able to develop silk reeling energy (Chan Si Jing) before moving to the more complicated movements that are in the forms.
Other methods of training for Chen style using training aids including pole/spear shaking exercises, which teach a practitioner how to extend their silk reeling and fa jing skill into a weapon.
In addition to the solo exercises listed above, there are partner exercises known as pushing hands, designed to help students maintain the correct body structure when faced with resistance. There are five traditional phases of push hands in Chen Village that students may learn before they can move on to a more free-style push hands structure which begins to resemble sparring.

Martial application





A martial trick that has been derived from the form

In contrast to some tai chi styles and teachersthe vast majority of Chen stylists believe that tai chi is first and foremost a martial art; that a study of the self-defense aspect of tai chi is the best test of a student's skill and knowledge of the tai chi principles that provide health benefit. In compliance with this principle, all Chen forms retain some degree of overt fa jing expression.
In martial application, Chen style tai chi uses a wide variety of techniques applied with all the extremities that revolve around the use of the eight gates of tai chi chuan to manifest either kai (expansive power) or he (contracting power) through the physical postures of Chen forms.[1] The particulars of exterior technique may vary between teachers and forms. In common with all neijia, Chen style aims to develop internal power for the execution of martial techniques, but focuses especially on cultivating fa jing skill.Chen family member Chen Zhenglei has commented that between the new and old frame traditions there are 105 basic fajin methods and 72 basic Qinna methods present in the forms.

Chen style in popular culture

  • Ren Guang Yi (a disciple of Chen Xiaowang) created a shortened version of Chen style cannon fist for Hugh Jackman to perform in the Darren Aronofsky film, The Fountain.
  • In the video game, Shenmue II, the main character Ryo Hazuki meets a Chen Style Master, Jianmin Tao, in a park in Hong Kong and spars with him throughout the game.


References

    <LI id=cite_note-Chen_Taijiquan-0>^ a b c Guang Yi, Ren; Stephen Berkwick, Jose Figueroa (2003). Taijiquan: Chen 38 form and applications. 364 Innovation Drive, North Clarendon VT: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3526-8 (pbk).
    <LI id=cite_note-Wile1995-1>^ a b c Wile, Douglas (1995). Lost T'ai-chi Classics from the Late Ch'ing Dynasty (Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791426548.
    <LI id=cite_note-2>^ Wile, Douglas (1983). Tai Chi Touchstones: Yang Family Secret Transmissions. Sweet Ch'i Press. ISBN 978-0912059013.
  1. ^ http://www.fangsong-sftuk.de/pageID_4341164.html


  • Gaffney, David (2002). Chen Style Taijiquan: The source of Taiji Boxing. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-377-8.
  • Chen, Zhenglei (2003). Chen Style Taijiquan, Sword and Broadsword. Zhengzhou, China: Tai Chi Centre. ISBN 7534823218.



External links
Articles

"A study of Taijiquan" - Explores the extreme difficulty Westerners face in attempting to explore the "history" of Tai Chi. (Website maintained by Bing YeYoung, a disciple of Chen Zhaokui).

An interview with Ma Hong Student of Chen Zhaokui, on Chen style.

Contributor Links

  • International Society of Chen Taijiquan - ISCT Homepage headed by Chen Peishan and Chen Peiju (20th generation Chen family descendants)
  • Taichichen.org - Chen Tai Chi Resources (e.g. videos/explanations of all Chen open fist forms)
  • The World of Taijiquan - Website maintained by Jasmine Bu and Chong Sien Long (both disciples of 19th generation Grandmaster Zhu Tiancai).


Video Examples:
Laojia (Old Form)


  • Laojia YiLu by Grandmaster Chen Zhenglei
  • Laojia ErLu (Cannon Fist) by Chen Bing
Xinjia (New Form)


  • Xinjia YiLu by 10 year old student of Wang Xi'an
  • Erlu (Cannon Fist) by Chen Zhiqiang
Chen Style Xin Yi Hun Yuan

  • 48 Form by Feng Zhiqiang, founder of the system.
Xiaojia (Small Form)

  • Xiaojia by Zhu Tiancai
Push Hands and Applications

  • Wang Xi'an demonstrating push hands practice methods
  • Tai Chi lecture by Chen Xiaowang
  • Chen Village school push hands lecture by Chen Bing
Weapons


  • Straight Sword Routine by Grandmaster Chen Zhenglei
  • Broad Sword Routine by Chen Zhenglei
Chen Style Tai Chi Sword US Team Trial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IpdOHVPI2iY&NR=1

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Source from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chen_style_tai_chi_chuan#Chen_forms[u]



===========================================================
Chen Style Taiji Quan 38 form

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6E6XPwRkQ3Q&feature=PlayList&p=536BE4D742C454A2&index=15

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chen tai chi in vietnam?

Post by longPhap on Mon Jun 10, 2013 11:40 pm

xin chào cac bạn ,
tôi đang tìm kiếm những người thực hành chen thai cuc quyen tại Việt Nam.
tôi chỉ cần bỏ ra một tháng trong chen jia gou, henan, truong quoc học tập chen thái cực quyền.
bạn có biết vo su dạy chen Thái Cực Quyền o vietnam?
cảm ơn bạn đã đọc của bạn Smile



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